Part 1 of a two-part series on a2 milk.
A Doctor (& Registered Dietitian) Answers Your Questions About A2 Milk.
The myths and facts about a2 milk – details to help you decide if you should give it a go!
What is a2 milk?
A2 milk is new to many.
Traditional cow’s milk is associated with various symptoms ranging from digestive discomfort to inflammation. Supporters of a2 milk, a relatively new player on the market, claim it doesn’t have these same adverse effects. But – is this true? And you might have more questions. Is it genetically modified? Can you drink it if you are lactose intolerant? How much does it cost? Let’s get to answering these questions and others.
The origin of a2 milk
Thousands of years ago, cows only produced the a2 type of protein in their milk.
Milk contains two primary proteins; casein and whey. Casein is the major protein in milk and has two forms, a1 and a2. Most milk currently found in markets contains the a1 form of protein predominantly. A2 milk contains only the a2 protein. It is derived from cows specifically bred to produce only a2 milk.
When cows were domesticated about 8,000 years ago, they produced a1 protein (2). Cows now must be specifically bred to produce only a2 protein milk.
Some research suggests we may better tolerate milk that contains the a2 protein. This is the same kind of milk protein found in goat’s milk and sheep’s milk and is known for being better tolerated than regular cow’s milk (3).
It was first sold in Australia and New Zealand and has expanded to the US and Europe. A2 has been available in the US since 2015 and is most widely available in California (4).
The nutrients in milk include protein, fat, and carbohydrates. Milk is hydrating – it is nearly 90% water. As most people know, it is a good source of calcium, but it is also a good source of vitamin B12, riboflavin, phosphorus, and selenium (5).
The protein in milk is a complete protein. This means that it provides all the essential amino acids that we cannot make ourselves (6).
Common questions about a2 milk
A2 milk and lactose intolerance ?
You may be able to tolerate a2 milk if you have lactose intolerance
Lactose is the primary sugar in milk. Our ability to digest lactose depends on our genetic potential and our gut health. If we eat foods that damage our gut, we eliminate the lactase enzyme (and our ability to digest lactose).
Some research suggests that folks who believe they have lactose intolerance actually tolerate a2 milk better (8). This is because symptoms attributed to lactose may be due to inflammation and not lactose in some people.
A2 milk and dairy allergy ?
A2 milk is not safe if you have a dairy allergy.
If you have a dairy allergy, A2 milk is not safe. Do not drink A2 milk or consume any products made with a2 milk if you have a milk allergy.
A2 milk and dairy sensitivity ?
It may be better tolerated if you have an intolerance to regular cow’s milk, cheese, or other dairy products. It is NOT meant to be consumed if you have a dairy allergy.
If you have a dairy sensitivity, it may be worth experimenting with a2 milk or lower-casein options, such as goat’s milk or sheep’s milk products. You may be pleasantly surprised that you can tolerate it. If you do not, you may feel better sticking with dairy-free alternatives and skipping milk altogether.
Is a2 milk genetically modified?
No, it is not genetically modified.
Cows producing a2 milk undergo selective breeding. This means that cows that produce the a2 milk protein are bred together to create more cows that make the a2 protein.
Are A2 milk products at most grocery stores?
Yes, it is available worldwide and in the U.S. at many large chain grocery stores.
Several U.S.- based options to purchase a2 milk are listed below. For other locations in the U.S. or world, a quick search on the internet may locate products near you.
A2 cheese also exists, as does yogurt. More options for products will be made available by the producers of a2 milk if consumer demand increases. Ice cream, cottage cheese, sour cream, and kefir may not be far off (11).
- A2 Milk Company– On their site is a product locator. Their products are carried at Walmart, Target, Whole Foods, Lucky, Safeway, and other chain markets.
- Bunker Hill– Online ordering
- Azure Standard– A monthly food delivery cooperative service. Deliveries are across the U.S.
- Millers Biodiversity Farm– A store or delivery locator is on their website.
Does organic a2 milk exist?
Yes- an organic version is available.
The regulations around using the organic credential are based on how the cows are raised and what they eat. To have 100% organic milk certified, cows must eat 100% organic feed. If an a2 cow is fed organic, she will produce organic a2 milk (“12). Alexandre Family Farms makes delicious organic a2 milk products.
What about grass-fed a2 milk?
Yes, grass-fed a2 milk does exist, but it is harder to find
The potential health benefit here is in the fatty acid profile of the milk she produces. Grass-fed cows produce milk that is higher in omega-3 fatty acids, lower in omega-6 fatty acids, and higher in vitamin E (15). If you choose to prioritize grass-fed while grocery shopping, reach for the whole milk to maximize these benefits.
A2 milk for babies - is it better?
Cow’s milk allergy is the most common allergy in childhood. Its prevalence is on the rise.
The World Health Organization recommends exclusively breastfeeding infants until six months of age, but that is not feasible nor the goal for all mothers (16).
Introducing hydrolyzed dairy may lower the risk of developing a cow’s milk protein allergy. If your child is not tolerating a standard cow’s milk formula, and a2 milk formula is one alternative that you can try (17).
Always speak with your child’s pediatrician if you have questions about the best choices for feeding your child.
Is it more expensive?
Yes – it costs about twice as much.
Non-organic a2 milk is about the same price as organic “regular” milk. The exact difference in pricing will depend on your local grocery store.
Bottom Line: Should you try it?
- If you include dairy in your diet, it might be worth trying.
- The research is limited, but some studies suggest that a2 milk may have a lower risk of causing inflammation. This may equal less discomfort and decreased risk of having loose stool when compared to regular milk. (19, 20).
- For some, dairy is inflammatory, no matter what kind it is or processed. For others, there are moral or ethical reasons that guide them in their dietary decisions. Whether or not to consume dairy of any form is a personal and health decision for each individual.
- What you eat and drink is a potent mediator of your health. You deserve to feel good!
*This information is not a substitute for medical advice. Please consult your health care provider for questions specific to your needs.
THIS ARTICLE IS COPYRIGHTED BY AMY BURKHART, MD, RD.
Dr. Amy Burkhart is a doctor (M.D.), Registered Dietitian, R.D., and fellowship-trained in integrative medicine. She specializes in treating chronic digestive disorders from an integrative/functional medicine perspective.